Odyssey's Polymetallic Nodule Focused Projects

Mineral Resource Composition

Phosphorite deposits are mineral occurrences which are recovered primarily because they are rich in phosphate material.

How and Where They From

Phosphorites exist in a wide range of depositional environments.  Phosphorites may be present on the seabed or in the stratigraphic column. Generally, phosphorites are targeted on continental shelves and slopes. Several factors contribute to the formation and style of phosphorite mineralization, including a supply of phosphorus, present or pre-existing complex oceanographic circulation patterns, and a proper sedimentological setting. Styles of phosphate mineralization vary depending on formational conditions from sand to granular to nodular forms or may be present as hardgrounds or crusts. 

Why We Need These Resources

 All living cells require phosphate as it is a component of the cell wall and DNA. Phosphate cannot be manufactured and there is no synthetic substitute to replace it. Phosphate is an agriculturally important mineral used primarily for crop fertilization, though a variety of uses exist for phosphate and phosphorus, the significant element in phosphate. Dredging of phosphate sands from phosphorite deposits offers host governments an opportunity to correct trade imbalances that presently exists in its phosphate sector. The current phosphate market is dominated by OCP (Morocco), Russia and China while  phosphate prices reach decade highs with higher demand from Brazil, China, India and U.S.

Phosphorite Recovery​

A Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger (TSHD) is used to extract ore from a phosphorite deposit. TSHD’s are a proven technology already in use globally and comply with environmental, social, and fisheries impact regulations. A secondary vessel, a Floating Production and Storage Platform (FPSP), will separate the dredged material to sized and flotation feed product specifications. Gangue material will be returned to the seabed by way of a downpipe close to the seabed. Based on this operational premise, the negligible environmental impacts and comprehensive mitigation measures have been carefully analyzed and scientific analysis indicates there are no toxic effects relating to any of the materials associated with project dredging.

ExO Phosphate Deposit
South American Phosphate Project


Paulikas, D., Katona, S., Ilves, Saleem, H. (2020, December 1). Life cycle climate change impacts of producing battery metals from land ores versus deep-sea polymetallic nodules. Journal of Cleaner Production (Volume 275).

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